What is Environment ?

Explore the fascinating world of Environment and Ecology for UPSC preparation. Dive into critical environmental issues, conservation strategies, and sustainable practices. Unlock valuable insights, expert tips, and comprehensive study materials to ace your UPSC exams. Enhance your knowledge and make a positive impact on the planet through this enriching journey of learning and discovery.


What is Environment ?

All the components of an organism’s habitat with which organisms interact and interact.

the term “environment” as the surroundings or conditions in which living beings, including humans, animals, and plants, exist and interact. It encompasses the physical, biological, and social elements that make up the world we live in.

The environment includes both natural components, such as air, water, land, and ecosystems, as well as human-made or anthropogenic elements like buildings, roads, and urban areas. It also comprises various ecological and climatic factors that influence the well-being and survival of living organisms.

There are two component of environment

  • Biotic
  • Abiotic


Biotic Components: Biotic components refer to all the living organisms or biological factors present in the environment. This includes plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and other microorganisms. Biotic factors play a significant role in shaping ecosystems and influencing each other’s survival and behavior. They interact with the abiotic components and depend on them for various resources, such as food, water, and shelter.

  • For example, in a forest ecosystem, the biotic components include the trees, animals like deer and birds, insects, fungi, and bacteria living in the soil. These organisms interact with each other through various ecological relationships, such as predation, competition, and mutualism, creating a complex web of life within the ecosystem.


Abiotic Components: Abiotic components, on the other hand, refer to all the non-living or physical factors present in the environment. These elements are essential for the survival and functioning of the biotic components but do not have biological characteristics themselves. Abiotic factors include various natural elements like air, water, soil, sunlight, temperature, humidity, and minerals.

  • For example, in a marine ecosystem, the abiotic components include the temperature of the water, the salinity levels, the depth of the ocean, and the availability of sunlight. These abiotic factors directly affect the distribution and abundance of marine life, influencing which organisms can thrive in specific areas.


The term ecology was coined by combining two Greek words, oikos (meaning ‘house’ or ‘Habitat’) and logos (meaning ‘the study of’) to denote such relationships between the organisms and their environment.

Study of living organisms in their habitat.

In which the study of interrelationships of organisms of biological abiotic factors.

That which is most adapted to a member of a particular species and therefore most likely to be found in that member of the species.

Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between living organisms and their environment. It encompasses the relationships and dynamics between biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) components within ecosystems. The field of ecology aims to understand how organisms adapt to their surroundings, how they interact with one another, and how these interactions shape the distribution and abundance of species in different habitats.

Components of Ecology:

  1. Organism: At the most basic level, ecology examines individual organisms and their characteristics, behaviors, and adaptations to their environment. It involves studying how individual organisms obtain food, find shelter, and reproduce in their specific habitats.
  2. Population: A population refers to a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area and interacting with one another. Ecologists study population dynamics, including birth rates, death rates, and migration patterns, to understand how populations change over time.
  3. Community: A community consists of all the populations of different species that coexist in a particular area. Ecologists analyze the interactions between these species, such as competition for resources, predation, and mutualism.
  4. Ecosystem: An ecosystem is a more comprehensive unit that includes both the living organisms (biotic components) and the physical environment (abiotic components) in a specific geographic area. Ecosystems can be as small as a pond or as vast as a forest. Ecologists study the flow of energy, nutrient cycles, and how different species are interconnected within these ecosystems.
  5. Biome: A biome refers to a large geographic region with distinct climatic conditions, plant and animal life, and adaptations. Examples of biomes include rainforests, deserts, grasslands, and tundras. Ecologists examine the unique characteristics of each biome and how organisms have evolved to survive and thrive in those environments.
  6. Biosphere: The biosphere is the sum of all ecosystems on Earth, including all living organisms and their environments. It represents the zone where life exists, from the depths of the oceans to the highest mountain peaks. Ecologists study how various global processes, such as climate change and human activities, impact the biosphere as a whole.


Daily writing prompt
If you could host a dinner and anyone you invite was sure to come, who would you invite?

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